The European zither is a rectangular box with a number of melody strings and several drone strings alongside. These are strummed together and the melody is played on a fret board with a small stick. This is probably a development of the Middle Eastern qanun that reached Europe in the 11th century. This was only an amateur instrument, not used by the lăutari, and is rarely seen in Romania today, but can still be found in Hungary.
Alexandru, T (1980), Romanian folk music, Musical publishing house, Bucharest