Archaeological sites in Romania, bronze age to iron age

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The bronze age to iron age period includes the Hallstatt, Dacian, Roman periods and the age of migrations. These maps give an approximate distribution during each period using the database of Romanian archaeological sites. The number of sites in each Judetul (county) may be affected by the Judetul's area and the number of sites excavated, therefore I have normalised to the total number of sites per Judetul. The terms used are as per the Romanian Ministry of Culture.


Bronze age

The bronze age sites are dominant in the north of Transylvania, Muntenia and the Moldavian plateaux lands.


Click here for the Bronze Age in the Balkans map.


6th - 5th BC

The sites of the Hallstatt Iron Age period, when normalised, are reasonably uniform apart from a reduced number of sites in Muntenia, the central Moldavian Carpathians and Oltenia.

The Hallstatt A (12-11th BC) and B (10-8th BC) corresponds to the late Bronze Age, Hallstatt C (7th BC) to the early Iron age, and Hallstatt D (6th BC) to the Iron age. The Hallstatt culture probably consisted of many different peoples and language groups. The variant is known as the Basarabi culture was present over much of Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Voivodina, and central Moldavia until Dnester River ~650 BC.

During this period the Greeks founded cities along the Black Sea coast and the first written records describe their encounters with the indigenous peoples.

Click here for the expansion of Greek cities Balkans map.


2nd - 1st BC

The greatest density of Latene sites are in the south of Muntenia with a low level through Oltenia, south Transylvania and across the Carpathians into Moldavia. It is not clear if these sites are La Tene, or just of the La Tene period.

The La Tène site has given its name to the European Iron Age which followed the Hallstatt period from the 5th century B.C. until the Celts were subdued by the Roman conquest. The La Tène culture may be termed "Celtic". After the 279 BC Celtic attacks in Greece many Celts settled in Bulgaria, Albania and Rumania.


Click here for the Dacian Empire under Burebista Balkans map.


1st BC - 1st AD

The highest density of Geto-Dacian sites are from north Muntenia through the Carpathians into Transylvania. The Geto-Dacians, or Thraco-Getians, were influenced by the Celts and Scythians. This culture belongs to the later Iron Age from 4th century BC until the conquest by Rome in AD 106 and is a local version of La Tène.

During this period the Dacian kings reigned from fortifications and sanctuaries in the Orastie Mountains. This period culminated in the defeat of Decebal by the Romans, however this Roman success was not easy, thus implying the strength of the Dacian state.


Click here for the Romans invade Dacia Balkans map.


2nd - 3rd AD

The Roman sites are found in Transylvania, and along the Olt river and through the Banat enroute to Transylvania, plus along the Black Sea coast of Dobrogea. One might assume that the other regions would have continued with a Geto-Dacian population.


Click here for the Roman towns & military camps in Transylvania map.


3rd - 4th AD

Sites under the title Dacian-Roman date from the end of Roman rule in Transylvania until the period of migrations. The sites are concentrated in Muntenia, Oltenia, Bihor and central Moldavia, which are all the areas with the least Roman sites.

Age of migrations

4th - 6th AD

The tribes moving west from the Pontic Steppe are most evident in Moldavia, particularly the plains of southern Moldavia, and the central Transylvanian plain.


© Eliznik2005, First issue 2002, Last updated Apr-06