The "Banat of Severin" & the "Banat of Temesvar"

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Banat of Severin
 
Banat of Temesvar
 

The title Ban was used in several states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century. The source of the title is of uncertain origin but was used for the lord or governor and Banat came to be used for frontier provinces particularly by Croatia and Hungary.

Banat of Severin

Meaning the "province governed by the lord of Severin" where Severin (from northern in Bulgarian) refers to the town of Turnu Severin meaning northern tower.

1233 - King Andrew II of Hungary established the Banat of Severin (Hungarian: Banate of Szörény) to protect the newly acquired territories from Bulgarian attack. This region included the regions now known as the Banat mountains and western Oltenia, which prior to Cumania had been ruled by Bulgaria. It is thought that the region had a number of local Vlach Cnez.

1247 - King Bela IV of Hungary grants areas of the Banat of Severin to the Knights Hospitalers.

1324 to 1330 - probably Besarab I of Wallachia had control of Severin.

1360 - The town Caran-Sebeş as the capital of the Banat of Severin.

Severin is taken a number of times by the Wallachian.

1552 - After the Turkish victory at Kosovo (1389) and the Turkish occupation of Serbia (1459), many Serbs emigrated to the Banat, which itself became a Turkish sanjak (province).

Banat of Temesvar

The plain and marchland now known as the Banat was largely depopulated during ottoman rule.

1716 - Conquered by the Habsburg armies led by Prince Eugene of Savoy.

1718 - Officially transferred to Austria by the Treaty of Passarowitz the Banat was made an Austrian military frontier zone known as the Banat of Temesvar.

1720 - Count Mercy was appointed governor and started the process of turning the Banat into a settled agricultural region.

1751 - Empress Maria Theresa put the region under civilian government. At this time most of the villages were Romanian, but the land was drained and colonised by Swabians.

1775 - A border military zone in the Banat mountains was formed with tax privileges to the villages.

1779 - Banat passed to Hungary.

1848 to 1860 - Banat was ruled directly by the Austrian crown during which the Banat Romanians attempted to get autonomous rule status from Vienna.

1860 to 1919 - Banat was formally a part of Hungary.

1920 - Banat was divided by the Treaty of Trianon.

References

Giurescu, Constantin (1972), Chronological History of Romania, Bucharest

Kopeczi (1994), History of Transylvania, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Akademiai Kiado, Budapest 

Treptow, K.W. (1999), A history of Romania, Iasi

© Eliznik2008, Last updated Mar-08