Banatul de munte - Banat mountain zone

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Banatul de munte region in Romania

Banatul de munte region

Valea Bistrei ethnographic zone
Iron age
 
Dacia: Burebista, Cotiso, Decebal
 
Roman rule
 
Period of migration: Visigoth, Hun, Gepid, Avar, Bulgar
 
Hungarian rule
 
Ottoman rule
 
Hapsburg rule
 
Romania
 
 

Banatul de munte archeology sites (north area)

Banatul de munte archeology sites (south area)

The Banat mountain region comprises a number of well known ethnographic zones - Valea Almăjului and Valea Bistrei, with sub-zones Borlova and Bolvaşniţa, and joined by the Timiş-Cerna corridor. Lesser known zones are Craina, Valea Bacuiului, the Slavic enclave Caraşova, and the low hills around the towns of Reşiţa, Oraviţa and Caran-Sebeş. The Banat mountain region is closely associated with the Pădureni zone of Hunedoara and the Făget zone of Banat.


Views of Banatul de munte

There is strong archaeological evidence of continued inhabitation from the Neolithic period to the present day along the valleys and mountain foothills. The Roman presence is seen through all the valley communication routes. In 106 Dacia fell to the Romans with Banat becoming part of the Roman imperial province of Dacia.

The departure of the Romans left the Banat at the border of the Roman, Byzantine, and Bulgarian empires to the south and Visgoth, Hun, Gepid, Avar kingdoms to the north. Slavs settled in the area during the 6th century under the Avar empire which existed throughout the 7th and 8th centuries. The Avar kingdom was probably an ethnic mix of Avars, Gepids (Germanic), Slavs and others, possibly Vlachs. Banat was  incorporated into the Bulgarian empire by 824.

It is likely that Vlachs, Serbians and Bulgarian relocated to the Banat from Serbia and Bulgaria with the advancing of the Ottoman Turks, but the population declined throughout the Turkish-Hungarian wars. After 1718 when Banat became part of the Hapsburg empire the land was drained and populated by state organised colonisation, there was also private colonisation organised by the landlords and spontaneous movements of peasants. This all led to a mix of Germans, Serbs, Romanians, Hungarians, Slovaks (from southern Hungary), and Czechs. A border military zone in the Banat mountains was formed in 1775 which gave tax privileges to the villagers.

History has left a number of important minorities in Banatul de munte; Serbian villages along the Danube, a few Czech villages, and Hungarians represent around 2% of the population.

Dances

The social dance Hora is common, but the "common Sârba" is not found, although a few Brâul type dances are in Sârba rhythm.

The dances in Banatul de munte consist of many variations of the column formation couple dances Ardeleana and De Doi, which are similar to the Haţagana dances of southern Transylvania. These have similarities to the dances of the Câmpia Banatului (plain region) but do not have the influences of the neighbouring Bihor and Hungarian regions.

The men's dances are the many variants of Brâul which cover a range of dances from the the simple sequence akin to the Pădureni Brâul, relatively complex fixed sequences often named after a person (for example Brâul lui Toma), and the music rhythm may be either 2/4 or 7/8. Choreographically these dances have similarities with some dances of West Oltenia, and appear to have similarities with north east Serbia and north west Bulgaria, which is not surprising as these regions have a large Vlach population.

The style of these dances was sharp and rapid, but the tempo has further increased over the years making De Doi particularly fast. Since the 1970s the trend is to dance on the off beat, in syncopation to the melody, still at increased tempo. This causes relatively simple Brâul or De Doi to become quite tricky!

The zone of low hills between the mountain valleys and the Banat plain, around the towns of Reşiţa, Oraviţa and Caran-Sebeş, has a slightly different repertoire of dances including Măzărica and De Doi for one man and two girls.

Line dances
Balkan 3 measure 4 measure Hora uni-directional bi-directional in place
  Hora Brâul Brâul  
Men's dances
Ritual dances Brâul Group men's dances Lad's dances Verbunc
Căluşeri Brâul      
Couple dances
Processional
walking dance
Turning dances Column dances Csardas Germanic &
central European
Others
    Ardeleana, De Doi, Măzărica       

Music

 

Costume

Lugoj - was a centre for cojoc making in the 18th century for the region.

Women's costume
Shirt Aprons/skirt Headwear Belt Overgarments
         
Men's costume
Shirt Trousers Headwear Belt Overgarments
         

References

Bosic, M. (1989), Narodna Nošnja Slovaka U Banatu-Kovacica, Kulturno-Prosvjetni Sabor Hrvatske, Zagreb

Fosca, G. (1971), Muzeul Satului Studii si Cercetari, Bucharest, Muzeul Satului

Telbizov, M. T. K. (1958), Narodnata Nosiya na Banatskite Bulgari, Akademiya

Turcus, A. (1982), Portul Popular Românesc din Judeţul Timiş, Timişoara, Comitetul de Cultura Timis

Gaga, L (1984), Zona etnographică Făget, Editura Sport-Turism, Bucureşti

Giurchescu, A. & Bloland, S. (1995), Romanian Traditional Dance, Wild Flower Press, Mill Valley, California

Giurescu, C (1972), Chronological History of Romania, Editura Enciclopedică Română, Bucharest

Latcu, I. M. A. (1971), Folclor Coreografic din Valle Timisului si Bistrei, Centrul creatiei populare Caras-Severin

Gainariu-Varone, G. T. N. (1979), Dictionarul Jocurilor Populare Romanesti, Editura Litera

Stoica, G & Petrescu, P (1997), Dicţionar de artă populara, Bucureşti

Ministerul Culturii şi Cultelor lista monumentelor istorice 2004 (http://www.cultura.ro/)

Discography

Recontre avec la Roumanie "Banat", Electrecord STM-EPE 0751

Muzica populară Bănăteană, Elecrtrecord EPE 0284

Nelu Stan (violin), Elecrtrecord EPE 01336

Efta Botoca (violin), Electrecord ST-EPE 01963, Electrecord ST-EPE 03783, Electrecord ST-EPE 04199

Ensemble Folklorique Timisul, Electrecord ST-EPE 01533

Jocuri Populare din Banat, Electrecord ST-EPE 03090

Ansambul Banatul,  Electrecord ST-EPE 01263

Muzica Populare Banateana, Electrecord ST-EPE 00284

Ion Peptenar (taragot), Electrecord ST-EPE 03653

Ilie si Radu Vincu (violin), Electrecord ST-EPE 03223

Taraf de Caransebes - Musiciens du Banat Silex Y225208

Romania Traditions - Doina Timisului Arc Music EUCD 1835

Luca Novac Electrecord EDC 218, ST-EPE 01371, ST-EPE 01794, ST-EPE 03317, ST-EPE 03967

Ion Peptenar - Un virtuose du taragot Electrecord ST-EPE 03027

Remus Bistrita - taragot Electrecord EPC 10.048

Ion Olan - Doine si Jocuri Banatene Eurostar CDS - 239

Constantin Olan Eurostar CDS - 020

Geza Novac Electrecord ST-EPE 02154

Ion Peptenar Electrecord ST-EPE 03653

Novac Luca & Geza Electrecord STC 000660

© Eliznik2006, Aug-07