The term Hora is used for;
- Hora is the name for the large circle dance and is the most widespread dance in Romania, partly because any number of participants of both men and women, of any ability or age, can join in. Hora is frequently performed as a ritual dance at weddings and funerals. In southern Romania and Moldavia Hora is the introductory dance to the dance cycle, whereas in Transylvania and Maramureş it is rarely performed at the village Hora.
- The fixed form chain dances to moderate tempo Hora music are classified as Hora, however often have specific names other than Hora.
- The term Hora is also used for the Sunday village dance, even where the Hora dance does not form part of the dance cycle.
The hold in Hora has the hands joined at shoulder height and held slightly forward. The formation is a closed circle, apart from in some parts of Banat and north Oltenia where it is danced in an open circle with a leader who can take the dance into a spiral. Mostly these dances progress to the right, often with a diagonal forward and back path.
The Romania Hora is a structured in 2 or 4 measure phrases. Unlike the Bulgarian Pravo Horo and Macedonian Oro which are structured in 3 measure phrases, however the Horo from north west Bulgaria and the Sitno from northern Bulgaria, have a similar form to the Romanian Hora.
There are several basic variants of Hora, particularly evident in the south of Romania.
- Hora mare (large Hora), Hora dreaptă (straight Hora), or Hora mare dreaptă is the most social chain dance. The Hora lente (slow Hora) and Hora mare Bucovineasca are at a slower tempo, rhythmically between 5/16 and 3/8.
- Hora n'două parţi (bi-directional Hora) includes
the many fixed choreography chain dances which alternate between moving to
the right and left.
Include within this category, or often separately;
- Hora pe bătaie (stamping Hora)
- Hora iute (fast Hora)
- bi-directional dances in other rhythms and mixed rhythms
- "Ternary" structure Hora
type contains a number of dances to Hora music
that are based on 3 measure structures non-concordant with the 4 measure
music. This structure is most common in Carpathian Brâul and
Note: within musical terminology "ternary" describes an A-B-A structure of the piece where B is a contrasting part or another dance. In Romanian dance terminology "ternary" is used for micro structuring of motifs or steps in threes.
|Hora mare||Hora mare, Hora dreaptă, Hora de mână, Periniţa||hands joined at shoulder height||2 or 4 measure phrases||walking, stamps||2/4|
|Bi-directional||Hora, Hora n'două parţi, Hangul, Floricica||hands joined at shoulder height||bi-directional figures||walking, stamps, heel lifts, leaps||2/4|
|Bi-directional (other rhythms)||Sălcioara, Hodoroaga, Şchioapa||hands joined at shoulder height||bi-directional figures||walking, stamps, heel lifts, leaps||other|
|"ternary"||Jianul, Balta, Salta||hands joined at shoulder height||3 measure phrases non-concordant with music||walking, stamps, heel lifts, leaps||2/4|
BUCSAN, A. (1971) Specificul Dansului Popular Românesc, Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România.
GIURCHESCU, A. & BLOLAND, S. (1995) Romanian Traditional Dance, "Mill Valley, California", Wild Flower Press.