indo-european language tree

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Hitite            
  Tocharian            
Mycenean
Mycenean
The Achaean Greeks lived in parts of Greece from around 2000 BC to the Doric invasions around 1200 BC. Their contacts with the pre-Indo-European peoples have led to many loan words from Pelasgian and Cretan and the contact with the peoples of Crete (Minoans) also gave the Greeks writing, know as Linear B.
Classical Greek Koine Greek
  Old Macedonian
Old Macedonian
Many speculate the ancient language of Macedonia, there are no inscriptions and only a few words that are the supposed remnants. Although the Greeks recognised the Macedones as a separate people and regarded them as barbaroi this cannot confirm that their language was not a Greek dialect. These areas have been influenced by many migrations and the ethnic composition appears to have been a mix of Thracian, Illyrian and Greek. Some consider these peoples to be related to the non-Indo-European Pelasgians, others believe them to be very close to Greeks or Thracians. Contacts with the Greek Halkidiki and Thessalia regions strengthened from the 5th century BC and Macedonian, if it existed, was replaced by Greek, disappearing in the 3rd century BC, leaving only a few remains in the dialects of Northern Greece. .
           
Mycenean
Mycenean
Paleo-Balkan tribes left Asia with the first wave of migrants, sometimes called Thraco-Illyro-Phrygians, who settled on the Balkan peninsula between 2300 BC and 2200 BC. These later divided into two branches with the Thraco-Illyrians settling  in the Balkan mountains, Illyria, Pannonia, Dacia and parts of Italy, and the Phrygians settling in the South-East Balkans and Asia Minor. Little is known about Paleo-Balkan languages, other than:
  • they are Indo-European
  • they were closely related to each other
  • they were also related closely to Greek, Slavic, Italic
  • they had a percentage of pre-Indo-European vocabulary
Thraco-Illyrian Illyrian Albanian Gheg (north)
      Messapic language
Messapic language
A couple of Illyrian tribes crossed the Adriatic to Apulia in south-eastern Italy around 800 BC. Messapic was originally an Illyrian  dialect, with some similarities to the neighbouring Italic language of Oscan. Messapic existed until the region was conquered by Rome.
Tosk (south)
    Venetic language
Venetic language
The Veneti tribes lived in north-eastern Italy, and adjacent regions of Slovenia and Austria. Venetic is thought to have been a separate language with influences from Etruscan and Illyrian, and having similarities with Celtic. Inscriptions in Venetic have been found dating from 600 BC until the 1st century BC when this region fell under Roman rule.
       
    Thracian        
    Dacian language
Dacian language
This language was spoken by the tribes who live north of the Balkan mountains (the area of modern Romania plus parts of north Bulgaria, Moldavia and the Ukraine). Dacian is separated from Thracian by changes in vowel sounds and the preservation of un-aspirated stops. Dacian town names end in -deva or -dava meaning fortress, many villages still have the -eshte - ishte ending.
       
  Phrygian language
Phrygian language
The Phrygians are thought to have been Indo-European peoples that moved to west and central Anatolia from Thrace around 1200 BC. The language has a common route to Thracian, but is a closer relative to Armenian. Inscriptions have been found dating from 800 BC to 300AD. Those from later in this period are closer to Greek and include many Greek words.
Armenian language
Armenian language
Armenian replaced the previous languages by the 7th century BC. In the 5th century BC an alphabet was invented and the written. Grabar or classical Armenian, continued in literature until the 19th century AD. The spoken language developed different dialects which are not all mutually intelligible.  The modern dialects are eastern Armenian spoken in the Republic of Armenia and western Armenian spoken by the populations formally of western Anatolia, now displaced.
          Catalan    
          Castilian Spanish
Italic Vulgar Latin Iberian Galician Portuguese
  Classical Latin Gallic Langue d'oil French
  Oscan   Langue d'oc Provencal
  Umbrian Italian Italian
  Venetic
Venetic
The Veneti tribes lived in north-eastern Italy, and adjacent regions of Slovenia and Austria. Venetic is thought to have been a separate language with influences from Etruscan and Illyrian, and having similarities with Celtic. Inscriptions in Venetic have been found dating from 600 BC until the 1st century BC when this region fell under Roman rule.
  Rhaeto-Romance Romansch
        Sard    
        Corsu    
      Balkan Daco-Romanian Romanian
          Macedo-Romanian    
          Megleno-Romanian    
          Istro-Romanian    
Celtic Insular Celtic Gaelic Manx    
      Irish
      Scots Gaelic
    British Breton
        Welsh
  Continetal Celtic Lepontic Cornish    
      Gaulish        
      Celtiberian        
      Burgunian        
      Gepid    
      Lombardic Gothic    
Germanic East Germanic Vandalic      
            Icelandic
            Norwegian
            Faerose
            Danish
  North Germanic Old Norse Swedish
  West German Old low German Frisian
          Dutch
        Old English English
      Old high German German
              Yiddish
Belorussian
Russian
Slavonic East Ukrainan
    Macedonian
South Bulgarian
Serbo-Croat
Old church Slavonic Slovene
West Kashubian
Polish
Sorb
Old Prussian Czech/Solvak
Lithuanian
Baltic Latvian
Indo-Iranian Dardic          
  (part only) Sanskrit Prakrit Romany
    Avestan          

References

© Eliznik2005, First issue 2002, Last updated Dec-05